Ways to Improve your Language Learning

skillsSome aspects of learning language are daunting which can be difficult to overcome. Time and patience are the basic necessity and some activities for learning a new language should be carried out for hurdling these challenges. In this article, we will discuss about the activities and the basic skills for learning a new language, and if you find them effectual, build them as your regular study program.

Listening

  • For developing your listening strategies, use an audio or video to practice and learn. Listen to one thing not only once or twice but several times. This help in building an understanding of a piece by listening to it several times.
  • Try to focus on the pronunciation and note how the preceding words influence the pronunciation of the following. Listen to more than two sentences of the same meaning and identify the difference or the variation in the same.
  • Using video recordings for listening help you in developing skills to interpret paralinguistic clues, like head and eye movement, gestures etc. for improving your understanding of the context.
  • It is good idea to listen a recording with someone else, so that after each listening you ca share information on what you both have understood.
  • Use a short section of the recording as a self dictation exercise and also try to practice other skills along with listening like, practicing to take down notes then writing a short summary. Moreover, you can extract useful vocabulary.

Reading

  • Developing your skills in predicting. See what you can predict about the text from the title, side headings, first or last paragraph. Thus asking yourself what the article is all about.
  • Improving your skills in making inferences. From a text, try to guess the meaning of difficult words. For instance; what speech is it? What does the following and preceding information suggests the meaning of that unknown word.
  • For clarity, try to break the sentences and rephrase the ideas in simple terms.
  • Develop text awareness skills. Go through the text and try to identify the writers attitude towards the subject and what clues in the text leads you to your conclusion.

Speaking

  • Speak new words in order to memorize and also practice the pronunciation.
  • Ask the native speakers to check how you are pronouncing different words.
  • Find opportunities to speak and practice, as this helps in developing fluency in the language.
  • It is good idea for recording yourself on tape, replaying and finding the mistakes in grammar, vocabulary, pronunciation, and later correcting it and saying it a better way next time.
  • Practice mimicking the native speakers that helps you in developing confidence.

Writing

  • Practicing writing is a good way of improving and learning a new language. Even informal writing activities like writing a diary entry in the language you are learning, corresponding with the native speaker on email etc.
  • When writing/typing on word program, use a spell checker to monitor your mistakes. Also note the words with same spellings but different meaning. Such words may confuse you like, for example, quiet vs quite. Another essential tool for checking alternate word is thesaurus.

The ways discussed here are likely to help you learn the language over time.

Related Links:
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Types of Shock Absorbers

They also help parts such as the engine, the axle last longer.

Basic twin tube
The twin tube contain to nested cylindrical tubes. One is called the working tube and the other is called the reservoir. Both the tubes contain hydraulic fluid. A piston is inserted into the inner tube and the piston cap has tiny orifices for the hydraulic fluid to get displaced when the piston pushed to and fro. The basic twin tube uses the principle of transferring kinetic energy to heat energy to offer resistance in motion. But when the bumps make the piston move up and down rapidly, air bubbles form behind the piston. This is called cavitation, and it causes aeration and fluid foaming.

Twin-tube gas charged
In the overall, this is very similar to the basic twin tube, but contains nitrogen gas in the reservoir instead of hydraulic fluid. This is a major improvement over the basic twin tube, as it gets rid of problems like aeration and foaming and also hydraulic fluid dripping out of the pipe caused by the action of the piston. Due to this prevention, overheating is reduced largely.

Position sensitive damping
Also known as PSD, position sensitive damping system contains two extra grooves, so that the piston moves freely on the tube, if the vehicle is running on a smooth surface. But at the same time, it also restricts the movements when the vehicle moves in a bumpy surface, where the upward and downward movement of the piston occurs with more intensity. This new advancement made in the dampening system enabled car designers to manufacture shock absorbers according to the size, weight, maneuverability, etc. of the car.

Acceleration sensitive damping (ASD)
This is the next step in the damping system. An acceleration sensitive damping can change behaviors between smooth and bumpy riding. It can also react to bumps individually. ASD is achieved by making some changes in the compression valve. The important thing to note here is that, this damping mechanism just doesn’t improve on the regular ‘control vs comfort’ trade off, but rather eliminates it. It also highly reduced the pitch of the vehicle while braking and roll during turning.

The mono-tube
Unlike the bi-tube damper, the mono-tube shock has no reservoir tube. There has to be an amount of displacement of the hydraulic fluid when the piston is pushed in. This is managed by making the fluid adaptable to pressures. This is achieved by filling the lower part of the tube with nitrogen gas. The hydraulic fluid and nitrogen gas are separated by what is called a ‘floating piston’.

When the piston is pushed downward, pressure arises in both hydraulic fluid and nitrogen. But as an act of displacement, the floating piston moves downward compressing the nitrogen gas.

Likewise, when the piston is pulled out, the hydraulic fluid flows through the piston and the floating piston is also lifted upwards. The resistance created this way offers outbound damping of the suspension.
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Benefits of Sugarless Gums for Oral Health

Saliva helps in keeping your mouth moist. Flow of saliva increases when you eat and chew and also neutralizes the acid produced after you eat sugary and starchy food.
When you combine the flow of saliva with sugarless gums, there is a new opportunity for stimulating more saliva flow. But it is the type of gum you chew that will make a difference. In this article, we will discuss the benefits of sugarless gums for oral health.

Sugar free gums help in cleaning teeth
According to the studies, chewing sugar free gum after meal and snacks can help in rinsing off and neutralizing the acids released by bacteria in the plaque that are harmful to the enamel of the teeth. Chewing and also the flavor in the gum stimulates more saliva. Saliva not only neutralizes acids but also washes away the left over food particles.

Xylitol reduces the bacteria that causes decay
Chewing gum that is sweetened with xylitol inhibits the growth of oral bacteria called as streptococcus mutans that cause cavities. When chewing gum containing xylitol, the bacteria lose the ability to adhere to the tooth. Using xylitol over a period of time, the type of bacteria changes and fewer decay causing bacteria survive on the surface of the tooth.

Chewing gum help prevent plaque build up
Plaque is the white sticky film that forms on the surface of the teeth. If not removed, it gets hardened above the gum line and it is difficult to remove it. Therefore, removing bacterial plaque after every meal and snacks is very important. Sugar free gums help neutralize acids formed by bacterial plaque that are the main culprits for causing tooth decay.

Chewing gum helps with bad breath
There are billions of bacteria in the mouth. Most of the bacteria live at the back of the tongue. Tongue acts as a breeding ground for these bacteria, which not removed can cause bad breath. Sugar free gums with strong scents will not only cover the unwanted odor, but also the help in fighting with the odor causing bacteria.

The bottomline is that chewing sugar free gum after eating can be a good oral hygiene practice.
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The Automatic Transmission System

The automatic transmission system is one that can shift gear ratios as the vehicle is moving without having to do the job manually. While the manual transmission system requires one to press the clutch, detach the engine contact and then shift the gear, the automatic transmission requires none. The main difference between a manual and an automatic transmission is that while the manual transmission shifts between different sets of gears to the output shaft to achieve the various gear ratios, in an automatic transmission, different gear ratios are produced by the same set of gears.

Components
The internal arrangement of the automatic transmission system is fairly complex with a lot of components. These are arranged within a small space and among a lot of other things, one can see:

  • A planetary gear set.
  • A set of bands to lock parts of a gear set.
  • A set of three wet-plate clutches to lock other parts of the gear set.
  • An odd hydraulic system that controls the clutches and bands.
  • A large gear pump to move transmission fluid around.

A crucial aspect of an automatic transmission system is the planetary gear set. All the other parts of the gearbox are there only to help it perform it work properly. The components of the planetary gear set are:

  • The sun gear
  • The planet gears and the planet gears’ carrier
  • The ring gear
  • Carrier

Unlike in manual transmission gears, in automatic transmission system the gears may be input, output or stationary. It always depends on the role that each of these gears plays.

Advantages of an automatic transmission system:

  • Increased driver comfort.
  • Easy to use, when compared to Manual transmissions.
  • Good at hill climbing.
  • The engine stays on ignition and will not die.
  • The number of speeds are far more than in manual transmission.

Disadvantages of an automatic transmission system:

  • It increases the weight of the vehicle.
  • Maintaining a vehicle with automatic transmission is expensive given the fact the oil and filters will have to be replaced regularly.
  • Better in stop-and-go traffic.
  • It overheats easily.

Back in the days when automatic transmission system was introduced, they were unreliable and slow. But those disadvantages have been rectified and the disadvantages that are there are minimal. Owing to some of the advantages that manual transmission systems have over automatic ones, some vehicles today come equipped with both manual and automatic systems. They can be switched between themselves whenever needed.
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Technical Features of Air-Cooled Engines

Air-cooled engines reduce heat produced using air-flow. To facilitate this, the engines have fins that connect the internal parts which get heated, to the outside, so that air can flow over them keeping the insides cool.
The air used for this purpose is either directly got from the air in-flow while traveling, or a fan is used. Usually, engines which have forced air (using a fan) perform better due to the force. In cars, however this became mandatory due to unavailability of direct flow.

Types

Copper-cooled: Copper fins were used instead of steel or aluminum by Charles F Kettering of Delco Electronics in 1923. But since the engine overheated in high temperatures. The model never got incorporated into engines.

Steel or aluminum cooled: Engines having Steel and aluminum fins are the most common ones. There are engines that use a combination of both. For example, the aviation engine continental C85 has steel fins on the cylinder barrel and aluminum on the head cylinder.

Advantages

  • Air-cooled engines require no separate cooling apparatus and thus they add little weight to the vehicle.
  • Since they don’t involve fluids, maintaining them is easy.

Disadvantages

  • Since air is not a good conductor of heat as water, the cooling is much slower as compared to that of a water cooled engine.
  • They are expensive to construct. This is because, the fins are a complex network of metal plates, which has to be precisely arranged in a particular design, to receive the maximum airflow in an appropriate speed for maximum performance. It is expensive also because, the casting of the fins has to be such that they pass through the walls of the engine. This construction involves more work and thus becomes expensive.
  • By including fins, they increase the area occupied by the engine. The decreasing the area of the fins, the cooling gets affected. So, the fins necessarily have to be large enough.
  • In certain conditions, they tend to overheat.

Usage
Used mostly in air crafts and motorcycles, because in air crafts, it doesn’t add up much weight, whereas in motorcycles, the engine can be kept exposed to receive air-flow. Usage in cars was limited due to the need to use fans which again requires power. Some diesel engines that were produced by Deutz AG and Lister-Petter were air-cooled. Tatra produces a big Euro-5 truck air cooled engine.
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Tips to Keep Your Car Running Smooth

Looking after your car is one of the crucial things you can do to keep your car run smoothly and to avoid expensive repair bills. To make sure that your car stays at the optimal level of operation, you need to get your car regularly serviced. Before it ends up costing you extra, here are some tips that help you keep your car running smooth.

Get your car regularly serviced

  • Regularly replace the spark plugs in your car engine. This helps the fuel and air mixture burn cleaner and more efficiently.
  • Check for the oil. Less oil makes your engine work harder.
  • Replace your filters. Dirty filters sometimes can increase the amount of fuel your car uses by about 10%.
  • Keep your tires properly aligned and inflated. Regularly check to make sure that your wheels are properly aligned and inflated.

Get your car regularly tuned up to avoid sudden problems. Damaged spark plugs or any other problem can contribute to poor gas mileage.

Watch out your driving style
Always drive gently which means accelerating slowly that also help you to brake gently and avoid panic stops. Moreover, if the temperature is freezing outside, allow your car to get warm before you start driving it hard. Drive slowly for first 5 – 10 minutes until the engine oil warms up and starts lubricating all the components.

Be on the look out for the engine warning signs
It will be OK to drive short distances with certain warning lights illuminated out of normal range. But there are certain warning lights that you can’t ignore; the engine temperature gauge, engine oil light and the brake light. Also check for such signs, and as soon as possible, shut off the engine. See your car mechanic at the earliest.

Unload extra weight
This is the crucial in terms of running your car smoothly because extra weight can be stressful to the critical conditions and can cause premature wear. Always remember to remove things that cause extra drag. Remove things that are heavy as extra weight will not only make your engine work harder but also kills your gas mileage.

Get problems checked out sooner than later
If there is a minor problem with your car, get it checked sooner. For instance, a torn CV boot is a common problem, which requires a simple repair. But delaying for getting it fixed will end up making you stop in the middle of the road and force you to pay additional money for a tow.
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Smoking and Oral Health

You must be aware of the fact that smoking causes lung cancer. But did you know that smoking is the major cause of tooth loss in adults. According to research, smoking has ill effects on oral health. It also has bad effects on appearance of your oral health.

In this article, we will discuss the ways that smoking ruins your oral health.

Smoking and tooth decay
Brushing, flossing and visiting the dentist regularly will help prevent cavities and maintain your oral health. But if you smoke, the aforesaid measures may not help. As smoking leads to decreased flow of saliva, there is an increase in plaque build up and tartar accumulation, which is hard to remove and eventually leads to tooth decay.
Smoking and gum disease

For smokers, there are six times more risk of developing gum disease than a non-smoker. Use of tobacco reduces blood flow to gums that deprives them from getting oxygen and nutrients that keep them healthy. This makes gums more vulnerable to gum infections.

Smoking and bad breath
Smoking leads to a condition called halitosis – bad breath. Smoking not only leave your mouth dry but also the nicotine and the tar get settled in the oral cavity leading to the condition known as smokers breath.

Smoking and discolored teeth
One of the common effects of smoking is teeth staining. Teeth become discolored because of the causative factors – nicotine and tar in tobacco. These ingredients make teeth yellow. Chain smokers (those who smoke heavily) often have brown colored teeth. Vineers and teeth whitening procedures can help remove these stains. But for problem free mouth, it is better to avoid smoking.

Smoking and tooth loss
Smoking restricts blood normal supply to gums, and deprives them from getting oxygen and nutrients that are essential for bone and gum support for teeth. Lack of oxygen and nutrients, bone that surround teeth become loose eventually, which leads to tooth loss.

Smoking and oral cancer
About 90% of people diagnosed with oral and throat cancer are the smokers. Talk with your dentist about concerns you may have regarding use of tobacco People who smoke have higher risk of oral cancer.
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Hybrid Car Buying Guide

In 2001, there were only two models of hybrid cars available in the United States. For buyers, the scope to choose the vehicle was narrow. Today, the number of models has increased and by 2015, 55 different models of hybrid cars from different manufacturers are expected to be available. In this article, we will see how to buy a hybrid car.

  • Know more about hybrids: Make sure to have a clarity on hybrid vehicles. You can get a lot of information from many websites, magazines and some other sources. After you get some idea, check how much it is comfortable for you.
  • Driving requirements: Standard gasoline vehicles give good mileage on highway driving, but not on city driving. The hybrid cars are the reverse. Hybrids give good mileage in stop-and go city driving. When the acceleration is not pressed, the car engine will turned off and when you press, it will start instantly. In city traffic, your car will move slowly or at a moderate speed. In this condition, engine depend on the electric motor. When you are driving on highway speed, you might go faster than in city reads. Then, the engine requires more power. Gasoline will be used to give the additional power to the engine. If you are driving mostly in the city, a hybrid car is the best choice for you.
  • Available alternatives: There are some gasoline cars that can give equivalent mileage even on the city roads. So your driving style is the not only the consideration to choose the hybrid vehicle. There are even some other electric vehicles available. Check the alternatives and compare with them.
  • Incentives by the governments and insurance companies: The hybrids will give better mileage and lower emissions than the standard gasoline vehicles do. Therefore, the Unites States federal government offering some tax credits to boost up the sales of the hybrid vehicles.

In addition, various states in the United States are offering different income tax credits for the purchasers of hybrid cars. In some cities, you can park your hybrid car for free. You can get additional savings from insurance companies. Check for all the incentives that are available at your location by federal and state governments, municipalities, and insurance companies. It will help you to save some money.

Hybrid cars are selling more. Manufacturers are continuously trying to improve the fuel economy of the hybrid cars by using different technologies. Government is offering tax deductions. Car insurance companies are giving discounts by just owning a hybrid car. The emissions with the hybrid cars are much less than the gasoline powered vehicles and more environmental friendly. These are all helping to boost up the sales of hybrid cars.
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How to Decorate Your Home Entrance for Wedding

The front door is the thing which welcomes your guests and relatives to your home on every occasion. It should, therefore, be decorated in such a way that everyone should feel a pleasant welcome. The front door should be decorated outside and also the inside. Decorating your front door gives a different look to the entire home. It reflects the character of your family so add a character to your home by decorating the front door with the following tips.

The first thing you need to do is remove the extra clutter from the door like old, ugly and rusted items. Use some bright paints for this area so that it should look very bright.

For welcoming the guests you can use welcoming door mats, floral arrangements, wreaths etc. also the cloves can be used to decorate your entrance door. Decorating the entrance also gives the festive mood to all the relatives and guests. Instead of using the casual wreath you can use the floral wire or grapevine wreath and decorate the wreath with bows, bells, fruits etc. to give an unique look. Entrance decoration can be done with the lighting around the area, you can use artificial or natural flowers to decorate the entrance door on both the corners of the doors, also use some accessories to decorate your door there will be plenty of items to decorate your entrance which are available at the local markets.

These are the some of the tips to decorate your home entrance to truly invite your guests for the occasion.
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What is Tooth Erosion?

Tooth enamel is the hardest and shiny layer of the teeth. It is the protective layer of the tooth. Enamel covers dentin, the layer that is not as hard as enamel. If the enamel erodes, the tooth/teeth loses its protective layer and becomes more prone to infections. Saliva helps strengthen the teeth and also in the process of remineralization. However, the process reverses if consuming more acidic food. In this article, we will discuss about the causes, signs and prevention of tooth enamel erosion.

Signs and symptoms of tooth erosion

  • Sensitiveness or pain when taking hot or cold food/drinks is a common symptom of tooth erosion.
  • During erosion of tooth enamel, the next layer is exposed and discolouration of tooth/teeth occurs.
  • The teeth edges becomes rough and starts cracking and have a rough feeling.
  • It is common during the early stage of tooth erosion that the teeth may have a rounded look.
  • Tips of the front teeth appears to be transparent.
  • Dents or cupping on the chewing surface.

Causes

  • Dry mouth, a condition where there is reduced saliva production
  • Consuming excessive soft drinks along with poor oral hygiene
  • Certain medicines or supplements like vitamin C or aspirin can cause enamel to erode.
  • Brushing teeth vigorously with hard bristled toothbrush
  • Fruit drinks especially citrus fruits like oranges, grapes, etc. have more acid that erodes tooth enamel easily.

Prevention

  • Limit eating/drinking acidic food and drinks like pickles and soft drinks.
  • After eating or drinking acidic food or drinks, rinse your mouth thoroughly.
  • Use a straw for drinking soft drinks and fruit juices that contains citric acid so that the liquid won’t come in contact with the teeth.
  • Use a soft bristled toothbrush and a toothpaste that contains appropriate amount of fluoride.
  • Chew a sugar free gum to avoid dry mouth.
  • Monitor your snacking habit. The mouth becomes acidic after eating or drinking.
  • Drink plenty of water so that you flush out left over food particles.

Treatment

  • Dental bonding: Your dentist will apply tooth colored layers on the edges or surface of the tooth/teeth using a composite filling.
  • Dental crowns: Dental restoration/caps/crowns are the best ways to protect tooth/teeth. This is more appropriate solution for the weak teeth which would be more prone to tooth decay.
  • Porcelain veneers: Sometimes the most effective solution for tooth erosion is covering with porcelain veneer. It is most suited for the teeth that are reduced in shape, size and color.

Tooth enamel erosion is the common dental problem that in very rare situation poses a risk, thus it is recommended to visit the dentist regularly so that it can be diagnosed at early stage.
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Car Steering and Pedal Vibrations Troubleshoot and Fixing

Cars are generally stable at any speed and run smoothly on any surface which is flat. If the car is not running smoothly, then the owners will begin worry about it. Having bad vibrations is a common problem for the cars, especially for those who run for a long hours. Whenever it is very old or some moderately aged, if the car is started, it vibrates at a speed or any other reason the owners questions about the solution. In the troubleshoot, the first step is what the wrong exactly is. There is a need to notify the vibration factors such as intensity change with speed, sound and more.

  • Gearbox and engine: The vibrations may happen with the reasons like speeding down and up or depends on rpm or arbitrarily.
  • Worn out or damaged engine mounts can be a cause of vibrations. If there is a constant shudder or an unusual shaking is detected, start off the engine. The engine needs immediate replacement. Check for vibrations and abrupt shock originating from engine bay. If you find anything it is likely to stop in a few seconds. A broken blade of the fan, or unbalanced cooling fan will cause random vibrations. In this case, replacement is required.
  • Another common cause is engine misfire. Without any actual pattern, in an abrupt manner engine misfire may create shudder. Engine sound will change and not steady along with its running.
  • Tires: Following indicators are the speed sensitive. These can completely unremarkable up to certain speed range.
  • The tires may develop flat spots when they are parked for some days without using. The spots will mend when you drive for a few miles.
  • If you have steel wheels, these will easily bend and cause cracks in case of sever shudders. So check for fissures, bends and wraps on the wheels. With a straightening wheel tool, steel wheel can repair, but for alloy wheel the chances are less.
  • Look for the bulges or adjacent movement. Swap the protruded spoiled tires. Both laterally and radially, check the runouts on the wheels and tires.
  • Suspension and steering: When the vibrations of the car are related to the speed of the car, the problem is with suspension or steering. At the high speed, vibrations are felt at the steering wheel is termed as shimmying. In this case, look for the broken or loose wheel bearing or the steering box must be loose.

Prevention is always better than a cure for vibrations in the vehicle’s pedal and steering. So, take care of the car by following the recommendations. Proper maintenance and servicing on time will help you stay away from many major problems with your car that makes a big amount of bill.
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